Zeros And Ones
I have a dataframe df. I would like to replace all zeros with ones and all ones with zeros in the dataframe. Or in general, if I have to find some value (like one) and replace the value with something else, what's the best approach?
Zeros and Ones
In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are notconstrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assumeany value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly thoseusing electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers,pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at theiroutputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signalswill be converted to digital signals before they are used within thedevice. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses ananalog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on aninternal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digitalconverter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can berepresented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by takingsamples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal(usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to themeasured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carrythat digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner,digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter.Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveformcan be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
This method of checking for all ones is only accurate for vectors up to a maximum length of 30 bits due to integer overflow in the exponential calculation. Some compilers will print a warning message as ModelSim does:
Go ahead and use the form above to download a printable cheat sheet with an overview of the statements that we talked about in this article. Then you will never again have to turn to Google for finding the best way to check if a vector contains only zeros or ones.
We've gone through several editorial changes since we started covering films in 1992 and older reviews are not as complete & accurate as recent ones; we plan to revisit and correct older reviews as resources and time permits.
Subnetting breaks down a given network address into smaller subnets. Coupled with other technologies like Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address Translation (PAT), it allows for the more efficient use of available IP address space and greatly alleviates the problem of address depletion. Subnetting has guidelines that cover the use of the first and the last subnets, known as subnet zero and the all-ones subnet, respectively.
The class of the network subnetted and the number of subnets obtained after subnetting do not determine the subnet zero. It is the first subnet obtained when subnetting the network address. Also, when you write the binary equivalent of the subnet zero address, all the subnet bits (bits 17, 18, and 19 in this case) are zeros. Subnet zero is also known as the all-zeros subnet.
The class of the network subnetted and the number of subnets obtained after subnetting do not determine the all-ones subnet. Also, when you write the binary equivalent of the subnet zero address, all the subnet bits (bits 17, 18, and 19 in this case) are ones, hence the name.
Traditionally, it was strongly recommended that subnet zero and the all-ones subnet are not used for IP addresses. Based on RFC 950, "It is useful to preserve and extend the interpretation of these special (network and broadcast) addresses in subnetted networks. This means the values of all zeros and all ones in the subnet field must not be assigned to actual (physical) subnets." This is the reason why network engineers required to calculate the number of subnets obtained when it borrows three bits would calculate 23-2 (6) and not 23 (8). The -2 knows that subnet zero and the all-ones subnet are not used traditionally.
With reference to the previous example, the broadcast address for the last subnet (subnet 172.16.224.0/19) is 172.16.255.255, which is identical to the broadcast address of the network 172.16.0.0, which was subnetted in the first place, so whenever you perform subnetting you get a network and a subnet (all-ones subnet) with identical broadcast addresses. In other words, a network engineer could configure the address 172.16.230.1/19 on a router, but if that is done, he can no longer differentiate between a local subnet broadcast (172.16.255.255 (/19)) and the complete Class B broadcast (172.16.255.255(/16)).
In this example, a routing loop has been created. Because Router 5 handles the all-ones subnet, it gets blasted. Routers 2 through 4 see the "broadcast" packet only once. Router 1 is hit, too, but what if it is a Cisco 7513, which can handle this situation? In that case, you need to configure your hosts with the correct subnet-mask.
It must be noted that even though it was discouraged, the entire address space that includes subnet zero and the all-ones subnet have always been usable. The use of the all-ones subnet was explicitly allowed and the use of subnet zero is explicitly allowed since Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0. Even prior to Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0, subnet zero could be used if the ip subnet-zero global configuration command is entered
Refer toRFC 1878on the issues of subnet zero and the all-ones subnet usage. Currently, the use of subnet zero and the all-ones subnet is generally accepted, and most vendors support their use. However, on certain networks, particularly the ones that use legacy software, the use of subnet zero and the all-ones subnet can lead to problems.
I have always been fascinated by computers. As a child, I heard that they run "ones and zeros", and was curious as to what that actually meant. Eventually, I learned a bit of x86 assembly language. I think it was from an early version of Randall Hyde's The Art of Assembly Language and the now long-out-of-print Vitaly Maljugin et al., Revolutionary Guide to Assembly Language. For example, this x86 instruction moves the value 42 into the eax register:
Compiling and running the program (the code can be downloaded as ones-and-zeros_42.c), with the ones and zeros for the movl and ret instructions copied from above yields the expected result: (input is terminated by ctrl-d)$ gcc -m32 ones-and-zeros_42.c $ ./a.out101110000010101000000000000000000000000011000011function returned 42Look! We just ran some 1's and 0's on our computer :-)
I have a dataset where the predictive variables contain only ones and zeros, and the response variable also contains only ones and zeros. I would like to build a model in R to describe their relationship.
The np.ones(10)*5 function creates a new NumPy array with 10 elements, all initialized to the value 1, and then multiplies each element by 5. The resulting array will have all elements equal to 5. The default data type is float64.
In these two sections, Sadie Plant discusses further the effect of a binary world on the female presence or lack thereof, in male-dominated societies. She states "the zeros and ones of machine code seem to offer themselves as perfect symbols of the orders of Western reality, the ancient and logical codes" (34). In a world of binaries, "women 'function as a hole,' a gap, a space, a 'nothing--- that is a nothing the same, identical,... a fault, a flaw, a lack, an absence" (35). Living in this binary world, women were considered "single purpose systems... fit for just one thing. (Plant, 36)" Functioning instead as infrastructure, they go unrecognized as such by our society and culture, never "taking part as subjects. (Ibid)"
Did you know that everything a computer does is based on ones and zeroes? It's hard to imagine, because you hear people talking about the absolutely gargantuan (huge) numbers that computers "crunch". But all those huge numbers - they're just made up of ones and zeros.
Finally, even though we're giving point values to each of those lightbulbs, when we write them down we still only write them as ones and zeros. One means On, and Zero means Off.So let's say we had 8 lightbulbs, and they were set up like this:Off Off On On Off On Off Off.The point values of those eight bulbs are:0 + 0 + 32 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 (remember - we only give points if they're turned on!)And that adds up to 52. So we would say the sequence of bulbs is worth 52. But how do we write it? We write it like this: 00110100So now we can say 00110100binary = 52.And that's Binary Code.
We can use the zeros() function to create an array with all zeros.The ones() function is useful to create an array with all 1s. They are written in the following format:zeros(n, datatype)ones(n, datatype)where 'n' represents the number of elements. we can eliminate the 'datatype' argument.If we do not specify the 'datatype', then the default datatype used by numpy is 'float'.See the examples:zeros(5)This will create an array with 5 elements all are zeros, as: [0. 0. 0. 0. 0.].If we want this array in integer format, we can use 'int' as datatype, as:zeros(5, int)this will create an array as: [0 0 0 0 0]. 041b061a72